What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a metabolism’s disorder of sugars brought by diet. This translates into a high level of glucose in the blood: we are talking about hyperglycemia.
Carbohydrates (sugars) provide most of the energy the body needs to function.
The sugars ingested during the meal are absorbed into the intestine to reach the bloodstream. Pancreas cells detect increased blood sugar and secrete insulin. Insulin allows glucose to enter the cells of the body where it is used, for example by muscles or stored in fatty tissues and in the liver.
As glucose decreases in the blood, another pancreatic hormone, glucagon, will, conversely, release the glucose stored in the body for use. So these pancreatic hormones keep the balance that keeps the blood sugar stable.
In the case of diabetes, this system does not work and the balance is broken.
Type 1 diabetes
It affects about 10% of diabetics. It is found in young people with evocative clinical symptoms: intense thirst, profuse urine and rapid weight loss.
his diabetes is the result of the disappearance of insulin-secreting pancreas cells. The body no longer recognizes these cells and destroys them with antibodies and immunity cells. Type 1 diabetes is said to be an autoimmune disease. Unused glucose builds up in the blood increasing blood sugar.
There is a genetic predisposition. A family survey often shows diabetic ascendants.Some environmental factors would also play a role.
The treatment of type 1 diabetes is done either by insulin injections by “pen” or by continuous insulin pump.
Type 2 diabetes
It affects 90% of diabetics. It usually occurs in people over the age of 40. Its development can go unnoticed for a long time.
In type 2 diabetes, two abnormalities are responsible for hyperglycemia: either the pancreas still produces insulin but in insufficient quantities, or this insulin acts poorly. Thus glucose does not enter the body’s cells and remains in the bloodstream, the blood sugar increases.
There is not a specific cause but a set of contributing factors:
– A genetic origin: the family factor is very important. A history of diabetes of the same type is often present in the family.
– Unbalanced diet, lack of physical activity, overweight…
What is the treatment for type 2 diabetes?
At first, hygieno-detetic measures are necessary. Physical activity, a regulated diet with weight loss can suffice to control blood sugar.Alternatively, oral and/or injectable antidiabetic treatments are prescribed in combination with a balanced diet and regular physical activity.
If this is not enough, insulin injections will be offered as a complement.
The complications of diabetes
Repeated and prolonged hyperglycemia causes long-term damage to nerves and blood vessels throughout the body. For example, complications of diabetes can result in blindness, foot damage that can lead to amputations, heart attacks, strokes, or kidney failure.
The two main types of diabetes are different diseases that need to be taken seriously and treated effectively.
For the time being, diabetes remains a disease that is curable but not cured. So you have to watch yourself all your life, keep good eating habits, exercise, and take regular treatment. So a diabetic can be a sick person with a good quality of life.
To prevent type 2 diabetes, especially if there are cases in the ascendants, the same lifestyle practices are strongly recommended: regular physical activity combined with a balanced, healthy and varied diet, to avoid overweight.